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Many PEMF scientific studies on the success and efficacy of Pulsed Electro Magnetic Field therapy are available in the public domain. Below is an extensive list of peer-reviewed abstracts discussing the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on several ailments?

If you don’t find what you’re looking for you can visit www.pubmed.com. This is an excellent source for articles from life science journals and biomedical articles. Type in “pulsed magnetic field therapy and” then type in what you’re looking for. For example: pulsed magnetic field therapy and arthritis.

Positive results have been documented in :

On review, after applying external electromagnetic fields ranging 5 to 8 Hz, large improvements were detected in Alzheimer’s patients. These included improved visual memory, drawing performance, spatial orientation, mood, short-term memory and social interactions.

R. Sandyk, “Alzheimer’s Disease: Improvement of Visual Memory and Visuoconstructive Performance Treatment with Picotesla Range Magnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 76(3-4), June 1994, p. 185-225.


As generally supported, a person’s biological daily clock may causally be related to memory deterioration in Alzheimer’s patients and in the ageing. Synchronizing of the circadian rhythms using magnetic fields, (this article suggests) could lead to improved memory for those affected.

R. Sandyk, et al., “Age-related Disruption of Circadian Rhythms: Possible Relationship to Memory Impairment and Implications for Therapy with Magnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 59(4), August 1991, p. 259-262.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with two 30-minute sessions of noninvasive pulsed radio frequency therapy is effective in significantly decreasing the time required for edema reduction in patients suffering from lateral ankle sprains.

A.A. Pilla & L. Kloth, “Effect of Pulsed Radio Frequency Therapy on Edema in Ankle Sprains: A Multisite Double-Blind Clinical Study,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy, p. 300.

Three hours of exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field in this study revealed that experimentally induced inflammation and suppressed arthritis in rats was significantly inhibited as a result.

Y. Mizushima, et al., “Effects of Magnetic Field on Inflammation,” Experientia, 31(12), December 15, 1975, p.1411-1412.


Another double-blind, placebo-controlled research study on the effects of pulsed electrical fields administered over a 4 week period revealed significant improvement in patients receiving the therapy relative to the controls.

J.C. Reynolds, “The Use of Implantable Direct Current Stimulation in Bone Grafted Foot and Ankle Arthrodeses: A Retrospective Review,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


In this general review article on the treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis with magnetic fields, the authors state that an alternating low-frequency magnetic field (30-40 mT) from such generators as “Polius-1″ and “Polius-101″ improves the clinical state of afflicted joints. Such treatments are normally carried out for 30 minutes per day over a period of 15 to 20 days.

V.D. Grigor’eva, et al., “Therapeutic Use of Physical Factors in Complex Therapy of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (6), 1995, p. 48-51


This research studied the effects of magnetolaser therapy alone or combined with conventional drugs in rheumatoid arthritis patients. This treatment utilized a AMLT-01 device for magnetolaser therapy and consisted of 14 days with 6 minute exposures daily. An obvious improvement was seen after 3 days of treatment, with greater improvement by patients suffering from mild to moderate levels of the disease. End results computed into a 90 percent patient improvement rate.

9B.Y. Drozdovski, et al., “Use of Magnetolaser Therapy with an AMLT-01 Apparatus in Complex Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Fiz Med, 4(1-2), 1994, p. 101-102


This study on 7 to 14 year old juveniles suffering from rheumatoid arthritis examined effects of low-frequency magnetic fields from a Polius-1 device. Ten daily treatment exposures of 10 to 12 minutes each were conducted on three experimental groups. The three groups showed 58, 76, 37 percent beneficial effects from the treatment.

E.A. Shlyapok, et al., “Use of Alternating Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Combination with Radon Baths for Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 4, 1992, p. 13-17.


Low frequency and constant magnetic fields in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis was the focus of this study. Patients with stages 1 & 2 rheumatoid arthritis as well as patients with osteoarthrosis deformans, showed the beneficial effects from treatments. This low frequency, constant magnetic fields were found especially beneficial to the knees, ankles and wrists.

V.D. Grigor’eva, et al., “Therapeutic Application of Low-Frequency and Constant Magnetic Fields in Patients with Osteoarthritis Deformans and Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 4, 1980, p. 29-35.

Study results indicated that using a magnetic ointment containing reduced iron powder, with an alternating magnetic field had beneficial effects with patients suffering from chronic blepharitis.

V.A. Machekhin, et al., “A New Method for Treating Chronic Blepharitis Using Magnetic Compounds and an Alternating Magnetic Field,” Vestn Oftalmol, 109(4), July-September 1993, p. 16-18.

A group of 83 adults with ununited fractures were examined for the effects of bone grafting and pulsed electromagnetic fields for this study. Results showed a successful healing rate of 87 percent in the original 38 patients treated with bone grafts and PEMF for ununited fractures with wide gaps, malalignment, and synovial pseudarthrosis. Of the 45 patients that were not successfully treated with PEMF and had bone grafting, when re-treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields, achieved a 93 percent success rate.

C.A. Bassett, et al., “Treatment of Therapeutically Resistant Non-unions with Bone Grafts and Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 64(8), October 1982, p. 1214-1220.


Examining the effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on 125 patients suffering from ununited fractures of the tibial diaphysis, showed a healing success rate of 87%.

C.A. Bassett, et al., “Treatment of Ununited Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 63(4), April 1981, p. 511-523.


Results of this study showed treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields resulted in an overall success rate of at least 75 percent in patients suffering from tibial lesions.

M.W. Meskens, et al., “Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of the Tibia Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Retrospective Follow-up,” Bull Hosp Jt Dis Orthop Inst, 48(2), Fall 1988, p. 170-175.


This review article makes the following observations with respect to the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in treating ununited fractures, failed arthrodeses, and congenital pseudarthroses. The treatment has been shown to be more than 90 percent effective in adult patients. In cases where union does not occur with PEMFs alone after approximately four months, PEMF treatment coupled with fresh bone grafts ensures a maximum failure rate of only 1 to 1.5 percent. For those with delayed union three to four months following fracture, PEMFs appear to be more successful than in patients treated with other conservative methods. For more serious conditions, including infected nonunions, multiple surgical failures, long-standing atrophic lesions, failed knee arthrodeses after removal of infected prostheses, and congenital pseudarthroses, PEMF treatment has exhibited success in most patients.17

C.A. Bassett, “The Development and Application of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) for Ununited Fractures and Arthrodeses,” Clin Plast Surg, 12(2), April 1985, p. 259-277.


Results of this study found that 35 of 44 nonunited scaphoid fractures 6 months or older healed in a mean time of 4.3 months during pulsed electromagnetic field treatment using external coils and a thumb spica cast.

G.K. Frykman, et al., “Treatment of Nonunited Scaphoid Fractures Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Cast,” Journal of Hand Surg, 11(3), May 1986, p. 344-349.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in femoral neck fracture patients undergoing conventional therapy. PEMF treatment was started within two weeks of fracture, and patients were instructed to make use of the electromagnetic device for 8 hours per day over a 90-day period. Results showed beneficial effects relative to controls after 18 months of follow-up.

E. Betti, et al., “Effect of Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Fractures of the Femoral Neck. A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8 13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


Results of this double-blind study showed significant healing effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields in patients treated with femoral intertrochanteric osteotomy for hip degenerative arthritis.

G. Borsalino, et al., “Electrical Stimulation of Human Femoral Intertrochanteric Osteotomies. Double-Blind Study,” Clin Orthop, (237), December 1988, . 256-263.


In this study, 147 patients with fractures of the tibia, femur, and humerus who had failed to benefit from surgery-received treatment with external skeletal fixation in site and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Results indicated an overall success rate of 73 percent. Femur union was seen in 81 percent and tibia union in 75 percent.

M. Marcer, et al., “Results of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) in Ununited Fractures after External Skeletal Fixation,” Clin Orthop, (190), November 1984, . 260-265


This study examined the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (1-1000 Hz, 4 gauss) on new bone fractures of female patients. Results led the authors to suggest that EMF treatment accelerates the early stages of fracture healing.

O. Wahlstrom, “Stimulation of Fracture Healing with Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely Low Frequency (EMF of ELF),” Clin Orthop, (186), June 1984, . 293-301.


This study examined the preventive effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields against delayed union in rat fibular osteotomies and diaphyseal tibia fractures in humans. Results indicated such treatment modulated and accelerated fracture union in both groups.

A.W. Dunn & G.A. Rush, 3d, “Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of Fractures and Osteotomies,” Southern Medical Journal, 77(12), December 1984, . 1530-1534.


This article discusses the cases of two children with bone malunion following lengthening of congenitally shortened lower legs. Pulsed sinusoidal magnetic field treatment was beneficial for both patients.

F. Rajewski & W. Marciniak, “Use of Magnetotherapy for Treatment of Bone Malunion in Limb Lengthening. Preliminary Report,” Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol, 57(1-3), 1992,. 247-249.


Results of this study showed that 13 of 15 cases of long bone nonunion treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields in combination with Denham external fixator united within several months.

R.B. Simonis, et al., “The Treatment of Non-union Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Combined with a Denham External Fixator,” Injury, 15(4), January 1984, . 255-260.


Results of this study found electromagnetic field stimulation to be an effective treatment for nonunion among a group of 37 French.

L. Sedel, et al., “Acceleration of Repair of Non-unions electromagnetic Fields,” Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot, 67(1), 1981, . 11-23.


Results of this study found treatment induced pulsing to be beneficial in patients suffering from nonunions unresponsive to surgery.

J.C. Mulier & F. Spaas, “Out-patient Treatment of Surgically Resistant Non-unions Induced Pulsing Current – Clinical Results,” Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 97(4), 1980,.293-297.


In this interview with Dr. C. Andrew L. Bassett, a physician researching the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields for the past 30 years at Columbia University’s Orthopedic Research Lab, Dr. Bassett notes that approximately 10,000 of the 12,000-plus orthopedic surgeons in the U.S. have used pulsed electromagnetic fields on at least one patient. Many such surgeons have incorporated the therapy on a more regular basis. He estimates that a total of at least 65,000 patients nationwide have received the treatment, with a probable success rate of between 80 and 90 percent. Use of the treatment has been primarily in patients suffering from nonunited fractures, fusion failures, and pseudoarthrosis.

C.A. Bassett, “Conversations with C. Andrew L. Bassett, M.D. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Noninvasive Therapeutic Modality for Fracture Nonunion (Interview),” Orthop. Review, 15(12)1986 781-795.


Results of this study showed pulsed electromagnetic fields to have beneficial healing effects in patients suffering from difficult to treat and surgically resistant bone nonunions. This review article notes that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields began in 1974, and that 250,000 nonunion patients have received the treatment since. The author argues that success rates are comparable to those of bone grafting, and that PEMF treatment is more cost-effective and free of side effects. The FDA approved PEMF use in 1982, although it remains widely unused due to physician misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the treatment.

A. Bassett, “Therapeutic Uses of Electric and Magnetic Fields in Orthopedics,& quot; in D.O. Carpenter & S. Ayrapetyan, (eds.), Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields. Volume II: beneficial and Harmful Effects, San Diego: Academic Press, 1994, . 13-48.


This 7-year study examined data on more than 11,000 cases of nonunions treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields for up to 10 to 12 hours per day. Results indicated an overall success rate of 75 percent.

A.A. Goldberg, “Computer Analysis of Data on More than 11,000 Cases of Ununited Fracture Submitted for Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting, 20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 61.


This study examined the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (1-1000 Hz) on middle-aged female patients suffering from fresh radius fractures. Results showed significant increases in scintimetric activity surrounding the fracture area after two weeks of EMF treatment relative to controls.

O. Wahlstrom, “Electromagnetic Fields Used in the Treatment of Fresh Fractures of the Radius,” Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting, 20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 26.


This study examined the effects of constant magnetic fields in patients suffering from fractures. Results showed that magnetic exposure reduced pain and the onset of edema shortly after trauma. Where edema was already present, the treatment exhibited marked anti-inflammatory effects. The strongest beneficial effects occurred in patients suffering from fractures of the ankle joints. Results of this study found that 10 hours per day of electromagnetic stimulation (1.0-1.5 mV) produced complete union in 23 of 26 patients receiving the treatment for nonjoined fractures.

A.F. Lynch & P. MacAuley, “Treatment of Bone Non-Union Electromagnetic Therapy,” Ir Journal of Med Sci, 154(4), 1985, . 153-155.


This review article looks at the history of pulsed electromagnetic fields as a means of bone repair. The author argues that success rates have been either superior or equivalent to those of surgery, with PEMF free of side effects and risk.

C.A.L. Bassett, “Historical Overview of PEM-Assisted Bone and Tissue Healing, ” Bioelectromagnetics Society, 10th Annual Meeting, 19-24 June 1988, Stamford, CT, . 19.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that both low-frequency electromagnetic field treatment and treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields proved effective in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis when coupled with standard drug therapies. Magnetic field treatment consisted of a total of 15 15-20-minute daily exposures.

V.M. Iurlov, et al., “The Efficacy of the Use of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Chronic Bronchitis,” Voen Med Zh, 3, 1989, . 35-36.

This study examined the effects of alternating magnetic fields (15-20 minutes per day over a period of 20 days) in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, and trophic shin ulcers. Results showed good effects in 236 of the 271 patients receiving the treatment. Thirty-four patients reported satisfactory effects. Only one patient experienced no effects.

E.I. Pasynkov, et al., “Therapeutic Use of Alternating Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Diseases of the Veins of the Lower Limbs,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 5, 1976, 16-19.


This review article notes that magnetotherapy in a variety of forms has been successfully used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is a commonly used physical therapy for the condition.

A.P. Dovganiuk, “Balneologic and Physical Therapy of Chronic Venous Insufficiency of Extremities,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 2, 1995, 48-49.


This study examined the effects of running impulse magnetic fields in patients suffering from vessel obliteration diseases of the legs. Treatment consisted of 15-20 whole body exposures (0.5-5 mT, 1-2 Hz) lasting 15-20 minutes each. Results showed treatment led to a significant reduction in the number of patients experiencing leg pain while at rest. Among patients previously unable to walk a 500-m distance, 52 percent were able to complete the distance following treatment. Circulation improved in 75-82 percent of patients.

Y.B. Kirillov, et al., “Magnetotherapy for Obliterative Disease of the Vessels of the Legs,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 3, 1992, 14-17.

This review article examined the literature concerning the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Results showed the high-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment to be an effective, side-effect free therapy for depression that may hold promise for treating related psychiatric disorders as well.

M.T. Kirkcaldie, et al., Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as Therapy for Depression and Other Disorders,” Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 31(2), April 1997, 264-272.


Noting that there is good reason to believe the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive system and that application of magnetic fields in experimental animals has a similar effect to that of acute exposure to light with respect to melatonin secretion, the authors propose that magnetic treatment could be a beneficial new therapy for winter depression in humans.

R. Sandyk, et al., “Magnetic Felds and Seasonality of Affective Illness: Implications for Therapy,” International Journal of Neurosci, 58(3-4), June 1991, 261-267.


This review article notes that transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to elicit antidepressant effects, electically stimulating deep regions of the brain.

C. Haag, et al., “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. A Diagnostic Means from Neurology as Therapy in Psychiatry?” Nervenarzt, 68(3), March 1997, . 274-278.


In this theoretical paper, the author argues that deep, low-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation can produce therapeutic effects equivalent to those of electroconvulsive therapy but without the dangerous side effects.

T. Zyss, “Will Electroconvulsive Therapy Induce Seizures: Magnetic Brain Stimulation as Hypothesis of a New Psychiatric Therapy,” Psychiatr Pol, 26(6), November-December 1992, 531-541.


Results of this study led researchers to conclude that patients suffering from major depression experienced a significant reduction of depressive symptoms following treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled with standard medication relative to patients taking the medicine. This was true after just three TMS treatments.

Conca, et al., “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Novel Antidepressive Strategy?” Neuropsychobiology, 34(4), 1996, 204-207.

Results of this study indicated that the optimal frequency of pulsed magnetic fields ranges between 10.0 and 25.0 Hz in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions of the locomotor apparatus, ischemia of the blood vessels of the lower extremities, dyspeptic syndrome, lactation mastitis, and other diseases. Treatment proved best when the therapeutic cycle was repeated after a 2-3 month period.

L. Navratil, et al., “Possible Therapeutic Applications of Pulsed Magnetic Fields,” Cas Lek Cesk, 132(19), October 11, 1993, 590-594.


This article reviews the use of magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia. Noting that this modality has been used for more than a decade, the author states that magnetotherapy has been shown to be effective in treating rheumatic diseases, sinusitis, enuresis, and ischemic disorders of the lower extremities. Positive findings have also been shown with respect to multiple sclerosis and degenerative diseases of the retina.

J. Jerabek, “Pulsed Magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia–A Review,” Rev Environ Health, 10(2), April-June 1994, 127-134.


This review article notes that pulse-type electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are the most frequently used type of electromagnetic therapy. Another form is pulsed radio frequency; PRF therapy generally includes daily sessions of 30-minute exposure and is primarily used in cases of pain and edema, with results being apparent quickly when the therapy is effective. PEMF treatment is most successful when used in bone healing, with results occurring over a longer period of time.

A.A. Pilla, “State of the Art in Electromagnetic Therapeutics: Soft Tissue Applications,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


This study examined the effects of electromagnetic fields administered over a period of 10 days on 354 patients suffering from various orthopedic conditions. Results showed the effects to be positive, with the greatest benefit experienced among patients with acute lesions.

G. Annaratone, et al., “Magnetotherapy in Clinical and Ambulatory Practice,” Minerva Med, 74(14-15), April 7, 1983, 823-833.


Noting that beneficial effects of low-energy, time-varying magnetic fields have been shown since the early 1970s, this review article cites studies pointing to its success in the treatment of a wide range of conditions. The best results for this modality obtained in the area of bone healing.

C.A. Bassett, “Fundamental and Practical Aspects of Therapeutic Uses of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs), ” Crit Rev Biomed Eng, 17(5), 1989, 451-529.


This review article claims that over a quarter of a million patients worldwide with chronically ununited fractures have experienced beneficial results from treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. In addition, the author cites studies pointing to the treatment’s efficacy with respect to other conditions such as nerve regeneration; wound healing, graft behavior, diabetes, heart attack, and stroke.

C.A. Bassett, “Beneficial Effects of Electromagnetic Fields,” Journal of Cell Biochem, 51(4), April 1993, p. 387-393.


This research examined the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on patients suffering from a wide range of disorders, including musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, circulatory diseases, traumatic disorders, gastroenterological problems, and stress-related morbidity. Treatment made use of the Rhumart apparatus, which produced waveforms with peak amplitudes up to 30 G. Results, based on the patients’ own subjective ratings, indicated the treatment to be beneficial across most conditions, with the strongest effects seen in those suffering from musculoskeletal and traumatic disorders.

Begue-Simon & R.A. Drolet, “Clinical Assessment of the Rhumart System based on the Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Low Frequency,” International Journal of Rehabil Research, 16(4), 1993, p. 323-327.


This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering from a variety of eye and brain vascular disorders. Treatment made use of the “Polius-1″ apparatus (50 Hz), with most patients receiving a course of 15-20 daily exposures. Results showed overall general improvements in 95 percent of patients with eye diseases.

N. Gilinskaya & L.V. Zobina, “Magnetic Field Application for the Treatment of Vascular Diseases of the Brain and Eyes,” in Y.A. Kholodov & N.N. Lebedeva (eds.), Problems of Electromagnetic Neurobiology, Moscow, Nauka, 1988, p. 94-98.


This review article notes that low-frequency electromagnetic therapy has been used for a variety of purposes. Those specifically identified the author include cell growth promotion, pain reduction, improved blood circulation, bone repair, increased wound healing, sedative effects, enhanced sleep, and arthritic relief.

R.A. Drolet, “Rhumart Therapy: A Non-invasive Cell Regeneration Ion and Anti-Inflammatory Therapy Using LF-EM Fields,” Bioelectromagnetics Society, 4th Annual Meeting, 28 June-2 July 1982, Los Angeles, CA, p. 45.


This review article notes that treatment with an “Infita” apparatus, used to deliver low-frequency magnetic fields, has been shown to improve general hemodynamics and microcirculation in addition to exhibiting anti-inflammatory, sedative, and analgesic effects in Olympic-level Russian athletes.

A. Zaslavskii, et al., “A Low-frequency Impulse Apparatus for Physical Therapy ‘Infita’,” Med Tehk, 5, 1994, p. 39-41.


This review article cites studies pointing to the efficacy of low-frequency magnetic fields in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions, including burns, arthritis, fractures, arterial aneurysms, PMS, phantom pain, tuberculosis, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, bronchial asthma, and ulcerated varicose veins, among others.

V.M. Bogoliubov & L.A. Skurikhina, “Therapeutic Application of Constant and Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (2), 1979, p. 65-72.


This study examined the effects of extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (TAMMAT device) in the treatment of a group of 650 patients suffering from a host of various diseases. Treatment consisted 15-25 minute daily exposures 5 days per week over a total of 20-25 days. Most patients experienced improvements after 2-3 exposures. Marked improvements were seen with respect to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immune-enhancing effects.

V.I. Kovalchuk, et al., “Use of Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Clinical Practice,” Fizicheskaia Meditzina, 4(1-2), 1994, p. 87


This article reports on the efficacy of a Russian electromagnetic stimulation apparatus termed “Cascade.” The authors state that data from 508 patients suffering from various ailments who were treated with the device indicate it to be anywhere from 75 to 100 percent effective. Examples of conditions in which the device was used include stubborn fractures, post-traumatic contractures, crush syndrome, and Perthes’ disease.

S.A. Schastnyi, et al., “A Contact-Free, Biologically Adequate Electromagnetic Stimulation of Repair Regeneration of Osseous, Cartilaginous, and Muscular Tissues in Children,” Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk, (3), 1994, p. 38-42.


This review article on the use of pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia points to its efficacy across a variety of conditions, including joint problems, enuresis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

J. Jerabek, “Pulsed Magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia: A Review,” First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19 June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 81.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that the administration of a pulsed magnetic field for less than one hour to headache patients produced significant beneficial effects, as shown subjective patient reports, as well as EEG activity.

O. Grunner, et al., “Cerebral Use of a Pulsating Magnetic Field in Neuropsychiatry Patients with Long-term Headache,” EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Verwandte Geb, 16(4), December 1985, p. 227-230.


This article reports on the case of an acute migraine patient who was successfully treated with external magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “The Influence of the Pineal Gland on Migraine and Cluster Headaches and Effects of Treatment with picoTesla Magnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 67(1-4), November-December 1992, p. 145-171.


This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (20 minutes per day for 15 days) in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic headaches. Results indicated the treatment to be most effective in patients suffering from tension headaches, with 88 percent of such patients reporting positive results. Beneficial results were also experienced patients suffering from migraines (60 percent), cervical migraines (68 percent), and psychogenic headaches (60 percent).

A. Prusinski, et al., “Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 163-166.


In this study, 90 headache patients were treated with pulsating electromagnetic fields via large coils to the body for 20 minutes per day for a total of 15 days. Results found the treatment to be either excellent or good for those patients suffering from migraine, tension, and/or cervical headaches. Patients experiencing post-traumatic or cluster headaches did not experience such benefits.

A. Prusinksi, et al., “Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache,” Journal of Bioelectr., 7(1), 1988, p. 127-128.


Results of this study indicated that pulsating electromagnetic fields (12 Hz and 5 mT) were an effective prophylactic treatment for patients suffering from cervical and migraine headaches.

J. Giczi & A. Guseo, “Treatment of Headache Pulsating Electromagnetic Field a Preliminary Report,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 74-76.


This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (2-5 Hz and flux densities of 3-4 mT) on patients suffering from migraine headaches. PEMFs were administered to the head for 10-15 minutes per day over a period of 30 days. Results showed a mean improvement level of 66 percent in patients receiving the treatment, compared to just 23 percent among controls.

L. Lazar & A. Farago, “Experiences of Patients Suffering from Migraine-Type Headache Treated with Magnetotherapy,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients following herniated disk surgery. Results showed that 52 percent of patients receiving the treatment compared to 30 percent of controls reported being free of symptoms at the time of hospital release.

K. Perjes, et al., “Effect of Magnetotherapy on Recovery After Herniated Disk Surgery,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 159-162.

This double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on loosened hip prostheses. Results showed an increase of bone density in all patients receiving PEMF treatment compared to only 60 percent of controls. The authors argue such findings suggest PEMF elicits early bone reconstruction, which enhances early weight bearing.

G. Gualtieri, et al., “The Effect Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Patients Treated of Hip Revesions with Trans-Femoral Approach,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, 50 G) in treating aseptic loosening of total hip prostheses. PEMF therapy consisted of 20 minutes per day for 6 days per week over a total of 20 such sessions and was begun, on average, a year and a half following the start of loosening. Results showed PEMF to have some beneficial effects with respect to loosened hip arthroplasties, although it was not effective in patients suffering severe pain due to extreme loosening.

K. Konrad, “Therapy with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Protheses: A Prospective Study,” Clinical Rheumatology, 15(4), 1996, p. 325-328.

Results of this 11-year study involving 3014 patients found pulsed magnetic field treatment at low frequencies and intensities to be a highly effective, side-effect-free therapy for joint disease.

E. Riva Sanseverino, et al., “Therapeutic Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Joint Diseases,” Panminerva Med, 34(4), October-December 1992, p.187-196.

This article reports on the case of a 55-year-old female chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic fields (7.5-picotesla; 5-Hz frequency) which lasted 20 minutes. The treatment quickly led to improvements in a variety of areas, including fatigue, sleep, vision, bladder function, movement and speech problems, and mood.

R. Sandyk, “Rapid Normalization of Visual Evoked Potentials picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 77(3-4), August 1994, p. 243-259.


This study reports on four cases of multiple sclerosis who experienced improvements in visuospatial and visuomotor functions following treatment with external application of low magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Further Observations on the Effects of External picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on Visual Memory and Visuospatial Functions in Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosc, 77(3-4), August 1994, 203-27


This article reports on the case of a 50-year-old female chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic fields who experienced significant improvements following the treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Successful Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Magnetic Fields,” International Journal Neurosci, 66(3-4), October 1992, p. 237-250.


This article reports on the cases of three patients suffering from long-time symptoms of multiple sclerosis who received treatment with extra cerebral pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of between 6 and 18 months. Results showed all three patients experienced significant improvements in cognitive functions.

R. Sandyk, “Progressive Cognitive Improvement in Multiple Sclerosis from Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 89(1-2), January 1997, p. 39-51.


This is a report on the cases of two chronic multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting severe speech problems. Symptoms were completely resolved following 3-4 weeks of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Resolution of Dysarthria in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2), November 1995, p. 81-92.


This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from alexia (lack of understanding of written words) who experienced a reversal of the alexia following the start of pico tesla-range electromagnetic field treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Reversal of Alexia in Multiple Sclerosis Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2), November 1995, p. 69-79.


This article reports on the case of a middle-aged disabled female patient with a 19-year history of chronic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Within one day of receiving experimental treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields, the patient exhibited improvements in her condition. The patient continued with 1-2 treatments per week over a period of 32 months. During this time, significant improvements were seen with respect to a range of physical symptoms, as well as cognitive functions.

R. Sandyk, “Long Term Beneficial Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2), November 1995, p. 45-57.


The cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting suicidal behavior are discussed in this article. Treatment with pulsed pico tesla-level electromagnetic fields resolved the suicidal behavior in all three patients, an improvement that was maintained over a follow-up period of 3.5 years.

R. Sandyk, “Suicidal Behavior is Attenuated in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 87(1-2), October 1996, p. 5-15.


This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old man severely disabled with partial paralysis and lack of coordination. Three treatment sessions per week with pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of one year led to a range of improvements, including improvements in gait, balance, bowel and bladder functions, vision, mood, and sleep. No progression of symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis was seen throughout the course of EMF treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Treatment with Electromagnetic Field Alters the Clinical Course of Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis–A Case Report,” International Journal of Neurosci, 88(1-2), November 1996, p. 75-82.


This article reports on the cases of two multiple sclerosis patients suffering from chronic ataxia who performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception. Treatment with extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields led to improvements in gait and balance as well as a normalization in body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.

R. Sandyk, “Effect of Weak Electromagnetic Fields on Body Image Perception in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, ” International Journal of Neurosci, 86(1-2), July 1996, p. 79-85.


This article reports on the case of a 51-year-old female patient with remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis who experienced a successful reduction in carbohydrate craving believed to be associated with the exacerbation of her condition following treatment with a series of extra cranial AC pulsed applications of pico tesla flux intensity electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuates Carbohydrate Craving in a Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 86(1-2), July 1996, p. 67-77.


This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from a chronic progressive course of the disease who experienced a reduction in tremors following treatment with brief external applications of pulsed EMFs of 7.5-pT intensity.

R. Sandyk & L.C. Dann, “Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuate Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4), December 1994, p. 199-212.


This article reports on the cases of three female chronic multiple sclerosis patients who experienced a reversal of cognitive deficits following treatment with brief external applications of alternating pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range of intensity.

R. Sandyk, Reversal of Visuospatial Hemi-inattention in Patients with Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4), December 1994, p. 169-184.


This article reports on the cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients with poor word fluency who experienced a 100-percent increase in word output following 4-5 sessions of treatment with external applications of extremely weak electromagnetic fields in the pico tesla range of intensity.

R. Sandyk, Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal Neurosci, 79(1-2), November 1994, p.75-90.


This article reports on the case of a 58-year-old male multiple sclerosis patient with a 37-year history of the disease. Treatment with external application of magnetic fields in the pico tesla range led to a speedy improvement of neurological symptoms in the areas of walking, balance, sensory symptoms, and bladder function. Improvements in numerous cognitive functions were seen within 24 hours of treatment as well.

R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, “Improvement PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields of Perceptual-motor Performance and Visual Memory in a Patient with Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 78(1-2), September 1994, p. 53-66.


This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient who experienced immediate improvements in visuoperceptive functions following treatment with external application of pico tesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, “Multiple Sclerosis: Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 74(1-4), January-February 1994, p. 177-189.


This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from falls due to rapid deterioration in balance and triggered distracting external auditory stimuli. Treatment with a series of extra cranially applied, low-frequency picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields quickly resolved such symptoms associated with a loss of balance.

R. Sandyk, “Application of Weak Electromagnetic Fields Facilitates Sensory-motor Integration in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2), March 1996, p. 101-110.


This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients experiencing continuous and debilitating daily fatigue over the course of several years. Treatment with extracranially applied picotesla flux electromagnetic fields dramatically improved symptoms of fatigue in all three patients.

R. Sandyk, Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Improves Fatigue Associated with Multiple Sclerosis, International Journal of Neurosci, 84(1-4), February 1996, p. 177-186.


This article reports on the cases of two female patients with chronic progressive-stage multiple sclerosis who suffered from regular worsening of their symptoms starting approximately a week prior to menstruation and abating at menstruation onset. Such symptoms were resolved in both patients two months following the start of treatment with the extracranial application of weak electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, Premenstrual Exacerbation of Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis is Attenuated Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 83(3-4), December 1995, p. 187-198.


This article reports on the case of a 64-year-old female patient with a 22-year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Two 30-minute treatments with low-level electromagnetic fields produced a marked improvement in a variety of symptoms.

R. Sandyk, R.P. Iacono, Resolution of Longstanding Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Application of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4), June 1993, p. 255-269.


Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that pulsed electromagnetic fields administered daily over a period of 15 days proved to be an effective treatment in reducing spasticity and incontinence associated with multiple sclerosis.

A. Guseo, Double-Blind Treatments with Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in Multiple Sclerosis, Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 85-89.


Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic fields administered daily over a period of 15 days is a generally effective treatment in reducing symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, with the most positive improvements involving the alleviation of spasticity and pain.

A. Guseo, Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis the Gyuling-Bordacs Device: Double-Blind, Cross-Over and Open Studies, Journal of Bioelectr., 6(1), 1987, p. 23-35.


Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that exposure to magnetic fields produced beneficial clinical effects in patients suffering from cerebral paralysis and in patients with multiple sclerosis.

A. Sieron, The Variable Magnetic Fields in the Complex Treatment of Neurological Diseases, European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 3rd International Congress, 29 February – 3 March 1996, Nancy, France.

This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on recovery following muscle injury in rats. Results showed that both pulsed and constant magnetic fields were equally effective, with the constant field being more intense.

I.E. Detlav, The Influence of Constant and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Oxidation Processes in Muscle, in I.E. Detlav, (ed.), Electromagnetic Therapy of Injuries and Diseases of the Support-Motor Apparatus. International Collection of Papers, Riga, Latvia: Riga Medical Institute, 1987, p. 12-16.


This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (Gyuling-Bordacs device) in patients suffering from peripheral muscle paralysis. Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures (2-50 Hz, 70 G). Results showed 50-Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields to be the most effective level of treatment and that such therapy enhanced muscle irritability in peripheral paralysis patients as well as in healthy controls.

L. Mecseki, The Study of the Efficacy of Magnetotherapy in Peripheral Paralysis, Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, 16-17, May 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 149-158.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields administered via soft collars on patients suffering from persistent neck pain. Results indicated significantly beneficial effects following three weeks of treatment.

D. Foley-Nolan, Low Energy High Frequency (27.12 MHZ) Therapy for Persistent Neck Pain. Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial, Bioelectromagnetics Society, 12th Annual, June 10-14, 1990, San Antonia, TX, p. 73.

This controlled study found that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced the speed and degree of peripheral nerve regeneration twofold in rats with experimentally severed sciatic nerves.

H. Ito C.A. Bassett, Effect of Weak, Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields on Neural Regeneration in the Rat, Clin Orthop, (181), December 1983, p. 283-290.


Results of this controlled study demonstrated that treatment with 15 minutes per day of pulsed electromagnetic fieldsenhanced recovery time of experimentally-injured nerves in rats.

A.R. Raji R.E. Bowden, Effects of High-peak Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on the Degeneration and Regeneration of the Common Peroneal Nerve in Rats, Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 65(4), August 1983, p. 478-492.


Results of this study indicated that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields on experimentally divided and sutured nerves in rats sped up regeneration of damaged nerves and the time ittook for limb use to be recovered.

A.M. Raji, An Experimental Study of the Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (Diapulse) on Nerve Repair, Journal of Hand Surg, 9(2), June 1984, p. 105-112.


This study examined the effects of a Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnet therapy device used to administer approximately 10 mT for approximately 10 minutes in patients with optic nerve atrophy. Patients underwent 10-15 sessions per course. Results showed that vision acuity in patients with low acuity values (below 0.04 diopters) improved in 50 percent of cases. It was also found that the treatment improved ocular blood flow in cases of optic nerve atrophy. Optimal benefits were experienced after 10 therapy sessions.

L.V. Zobina, Effectiveness of Magnetotherapy in Optic Nerve Atrophy. A Preliminary Study, Vestn Oftalmol, 106(5), September-October 1990, p. 54-57.

This article summarizes clinical results obtained the authors in using pulsed electromagnetic fields (Gyuling-Bordacs device) in the treatment of neurological and locomotor disorders among a group of 148 patients in a hospital setting over a period of 3 years. The authors claim that 58-80 percent of such patients experienced benefits of some kind over the course of magnetotherapy.

G. Terlaki, Clinical Experiences Magnetotherapy, Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, 16-17 May 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 175-179.


This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering from nervous system diseases. Treatment consisted of 10-12 6-minute exposures (10-20 kG, 0.1-0.6 Hz). Results indicated beneficial effects in 25 of the 27 patients receiving the treatment.

A.A. Skorometz, Magnetic Impulse Therapy of Patients with Spondylogenic Diseases of the Nervous System, Fizicheskaia Meditzina, 3(1-2), 1993, p. 41-43.


Results of this study found that the use of magnetic fields (30-35 mT, 10 and 100 Hz) produced beneficial effects in 93 percent of patients suffering from nerve problems.

A.G. Shiman, Use of Combined Methods of agnetoelectrotherapy in the Treatment for Polineuropathies, Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (5), 1993, p, 38-41.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields had beneficial effects in the treatment of patients suffering from painful osteo arthritis of the knee or cervical spine. PEMF therapy consisted of 18 exposures lasting 30 minutes and administered 3-5 times per week.

D.H. Trock, The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Cervical Spine. Report of Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trials,” Journal of Rheumatology, 21(10), 1994, p. 1903-1911.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields produced significant favorable effects in patients suffering from osteoarthritis.

D.H. Trock, Treatment of Osteoarthritis with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields,” Bioelectric Repair and Growth Society, Vol. XIII, 13th Annual Meeting, 10-13 October 1993, Dana Point, CA, p. 14.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields yielded significant benefits in patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee or cervical spine. PEMF therapy (25 G, 5-24 Hz) consisted of 18 30-minute exposures over a period of 3-4 weeks.

A.J. Bollet, Treatment of Osteoarthritis with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields, European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 2nd Congress, 9-11 December 1993, Bled Slovenia, p. 46.


This controlled study examined the effects of changeable magnetic fields (Polus-101 device) coupled with more conventional therapies in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis. Magnetic therapy consisted of daily 20 minute exposures for a total of 12 sessions. Results showed more rapid improvements of immunological indices and alleviation of symptoms associated with the disease among patients receiving the combination therapy compared to those treated only conventionally.

L. Yurkiv, The Use of Changeable Magnetic Field in Treatment of Osteoarthrosis, European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 3rd International Congress, 29 February-3 March 1996, Nancy France.

This study examined the effects of alternating magnetic fields (50 Hz, 10-50 mT) combined with conservative therapy in patients suffering from spinal osteochondrosis. Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures over a total of 20-25 such exposures per course. Results showed clinical benefits in 95 percent of patients receiving the combination treatment compared to just 30 percent among controls.

L.L. Butenko, The Use of Alternating Magnetic Fields in Spinal Osteochondrosis, Mechanisms of Biological Action of Electromagnetic Fields, 27-31 October 1987, Pushchino, USSR, USSR Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Biological Studies, Inst. of Biological Physics, Coordination Council of Comecon Countries and Yugoslavia for Research in the Fields of Biological Physics, p. 183.

This pilot study found that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

N.S. Eftekhar, Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Treated Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs): A Preliminary Report, 1983, p. 306-330.


This study examined the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteonecrosis. Compared to published findings concerning surgical treatment, results showed PEMF therapy to be superior in producing improvement.

M. Hinsenkamp, Preliminary Results in Electromagnetic Field Treatment of Osteonecrosis, Bioelectrochem Bioenerg.30, 1993, p. 229-236.

This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis in 10-month-old female rats. Results showed that EMF treatment for one hour per day for 4 months with a 30-gauss maximum pulse reduced bone mass loss to within 10 percent,while a 70-gauss maximum pulse reduced bone mass loss entirely.

M. Hinsenkamp, Preliminary Results in Electromagnetic Field Treatment of Osteonecrosis, Bioelectrochem Bioenerg.30, 1993, p. 229-236.


This study examined the effects of long-term pulsing electromagnetic fields in the form of repetitive pulse burst waves over a period of 6 months in osteoporotic rats. Results showed increased bone volume and formation activity.

S. Mishima, The Effect of Long-term Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Experimental Osteoporosis of Rats, Sangyo Ika Daigaku Zasshi, 10(1), March 1, 1988, p. 31-45.


This study examined the effects of a 72-Hz pulsating electromagnetic field administered for 10 hours per day over a period of 12 weeks on bone density in women prone to osteoporosis. Results found significant increases in bone mineral density in the area of EMF exposure.

F. Tabrah, Bone Density Changes in Osteoporosis-prone Women Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs), Journal of Bone Miner Res, 5(5), May 1990, p. 437-442.


In this study, osteoporosis patients received treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 G, 50-100 Hz) for 30 minutes per session over a period of two years involving 20 sessions. These subjects were compared to similar patients treated with calcitonin. Results indicated PEMF to be effective in reducing pain, and to be even more so when combined with the conventional drug treatment.

T.W. Bilotta, The Use of Low-Frequency Low Magnitude PEMFs in Treatment of Osteoporosis, Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2), 1989, p. 316.


This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment consisted of daily 30-minute exposures for 20 days every six months. Results showed that PEMF treatment combined with 100 IU per day of nasal spray synthetic salmon calcitonin arrested bone decrease and significantly increased bone mass relative to patients receiving drug therapy alone.

T.W. Bilotta, Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis, First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19 June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 78.


Results of this study found the use of total-body low-frequency magnetic fields (60 G, 50-100 Hz) to be effective in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoporosis-related symptoms. Treatment consisted of a total of 15 exposures of 30 minutes each.

G. Saveriano S. Ricci,Treatment of Senile Osteoporosis Caused Rachialgia with Low-Frequency PEMFs, Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2), 1989, p. 321.

This article reports on the case of a 73-year-old male Parkinson’s patients suffering from disabling resting and postural tremors in the right hand, as well as other symptoms. Two successive 20-minute treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields of 7.5-picotesla intensity and 5-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave led to improvements in visuospatial performance and a legible signature. Significant improvements in Parkinsonian motor symptoms were also seen following additional treatments.

R. Sandyk, Brief Communication: Electromagnetic Fields Improve Visuospatial Performance and Reverse Agraphia in a Parkinsonian Patient, International Journal of Neurosci, 87(3-4), November 1996, p. 209-217.


This article reports on the case of a medicated 61-year-old Parkinson’s patient who experienced rapid reversal of symptoms following a single external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Reversal of Visual Neglect in Parkinson’s Disease Treatment with picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,International Journal of Neurosci, 73(1-2), November 1993, p. 93-107.


This article reports on four Parkinson’s patients who experienced significant improvement in symptoms following treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields. Two additional patients suffering from Parkinson’s-related dementia experienced significant improvements in visuospatial impairment.

R. Sandyk, Magnetic Fields in the Therapy of Parkinsonism, International Journal of Neurosci, 66(3-4), October 1992, p. 209-235.


Noting that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new and noninvasive method of direct cortical neuron stimulation, this review article discusses recent studies showing that TMS has led to improvements in symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease and depression.

M.S. George, et al., “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Neuropsychiatric Tool for the 21st Century,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 8(4), Fall 1996, p. 373-382.


Results of this study showed that the application of ELF magnetic fields via a plastic helmet device housing a set of coils (generating fields of 8 Hz and 7.5 pT) produced beneficial clinical effects after 30 minutes in patients suffering Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

J. Bardasano, Extracranial Device for Noninvasive Neurological Treatments with Pulsating ELF Magnetic Fields, Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


This article reports on the cases of two Parkinson’s patients who experienced improvements in motor symptoms following treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R.Sandyk,Parkinsonian Micrographia Reversed Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 81(1-2), March 1995, p. 83-93.


This article reports on the cases of three Parkinson’s patients on full medication who exhibited an improvement in right hemispheric functions following a series of treatments with external application of electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, “Improvement in Short-term Visual Memory Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Parkinson’s Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 81(1-2), March 1995, p. 67-82.


This article reports on the case of a nonmedicated 49-year-old male Parkinson’s patient who experienced a dramatic improvement in motor, depressive, and cognitive symptoms following treatment with brief extracranial applications of picotesla-range electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “A Drug Naive Parkinsonian Patient Successfully Treated with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 79(1-2), November 1994, p. 99-110.


This article reports on the case of a 61-year-old Parkinson’s patient who experienced improvements in the severity of motor problems 30 minutes after treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range. Sham treatment had no such effects in the same patient.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Reversal of Micrographia in Parkinson’s Disease Application of picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci 77(1-2), July 1994, p. 77-84.


This article reports on the cases of five Parkinsonian patients on full medication who experienced a marked improvement in performance on Thurstone’s Word-Fluency Test following treatment with a series of extremely-low-intensity electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range and of 5-8 Hz frequency.

R. Sandyk, Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Parkinson’s Disease Administration of Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 77(1-2), July 1994, p. 23-46.


This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient who was able to discontinue most medication for two weeks following two treatment sessions with extracranial picotesla-range magnetic fields. Symptoms recurred after three weeks and the patient received four more magnetic field sessions on consecutive days after four weeks. The patient was then able to discontinue medications completely.

R. Sandyk, Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease with Magnetic Fields Reduces the Requirement for Antiparkinsonian Medications, International Journal of Neurosci, 74(1-4), January-February 1994, p. 191-201.


This article reports on the cases of five medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced improvements in motor, behavioral, and autonomic functions, and in visuoconstructional tasks following treatment with extracranial application of magnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, Reversal of a Visuoconstructional Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease Application of External Magnetic Fields: A Report of Five Cases, International Journal of Neurosci, 75(3-4), April 1994, p. 213-228.


This article reports on the cases of three medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced relief from disabling periods of freezing gait following treatment with extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease is Improved Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2), March 1996, p. 111-124.


The cases of four nondemented Parkinsonian patients under full medication are discussed in this article. These patients performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception. Treatment with extracerebral applications of picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields led to marked improvements in body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.

R. Sandyk, Improvement of Body Image Perception in Parkinson’s Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4), June 1995, p. 269-283.


This article reports on the cases of four medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced reversal of visuospatial impairments as measured the Clock Drawing Test following treatment with externally applied weak electromagnetic fields of picotesla-range intensity.

R. Sandyk, Reversal of Visuospatial Deficit on the Clock Drawing Test in Parkinson’s Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4), June 1995, p. 255-268.


This article reports on the case of a 68-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson’s disease over a period of 7 years. The patient had experienced little relief from traditional medical therapy. Treatment with external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields led to quick improvements with respect to tremor and foot dystonia, gait, postural reflexes, mood, anxiety, and cognitive and autonomic functions.

R. Sandyk K. Derpapas, The Effects of External picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on the EEG in Parkinson’s Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 70(1-2), May 1993, p. 85-96.


This article reports on the cases of four Parkinsonian patients who exhibited significant improvements in motor symptoms following treatment with externally applied magnetic fields of picotesla-range intensity.

R. Sandyk K. Derpapas, Further Observations on the Unique Efficacy of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Parkinson’s Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 69(1-4), March-April 1993, p. 67-83


This article reports on two cases of fully medicated Parkinson’s patients who experienced enhanced visuoperceptive functions as measured numerous drawing tests following extracranial treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Rapid Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4), June 1993, p. 233-254.


This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient on full medication who experienced a marked improvement on several different drawing tests following 30 minutes of treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, The Effects of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on Perceptual Organization and Visual Memory in Parkinsonism, International Journal of Neurosci, 73(3-4), December 1993, p. 207-219


This article reports on the case of a Parkinson’s patient suffering from severe movement problems who received treatment with external artificial weak magnetic fields with a frequency of 2 Hz and intensity of 7.5 picotesla over a period of 6 minutes. Results showed a significant attenuation in disability and near total reversal of the symptoms lasting approximately 72 hours. The patient then applied equivalent magnetic fields on a daily basis at home. Sustained improvement was seen throughout an observation of one month.

R. Sandyk, Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 63(1-2), March 1992, p. 141-150.


This article reports on the case of a 67-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson’s disease and levodopa-related motor fluctuations. Treatment with the application of external weak magnetic fields led to improvements in general Parkinsonian symptoms along with the amelioration of symptoms.

R. Sandyk, Weak Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease with the Phenomenon, International Journal of Neurosci, 66(1-2), September 1992, p. 97-106.

In this study, 92 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results indicated a 76-percent rate of lesion recovery.

J.S. Kort, et al., Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields, Clin Orthop, (165), May 1982, p. 124-137.


In this study, 34 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis-associated infantile nonunions received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results indicated that 50 percent experienced full healing, 21 percent experienced healing with need for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were among men with a history of early fracture. Following the demonstration of coil effects, the PEMF treatment was combined with surgical realignment, immobilization, and grafting.

C.A. Bassett, Congenital Pseudarthroses of the Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields, Clin Orthop, (154), January-February 1981, p. 136-148.


In this study, 29 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received extremely-low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results: Over 70 percent experienced full healing, 21 percent experienced healing with need for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were among men with a history of early fracture.

C.A. Bassett, A Non-operative Salvage of Surgically-resistant Pseudarthroses and Non-unions Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields. A Preliminary Report, Clin Orthop, May 1977, p. 128-143.


In this article, the authors report on their own clinical use of electrodynamic field therapy in the treatment of 271 pseudoarthrosis patients over a period of 8 years. They report bony healing in 92 percent of such cases.

F. Lechner, Treatment of Infected Pseudoarthroses with Electrodynamic Field Therapy, Fortschr Med, 97(20), May 24, 1979, p. 943-949.


This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on 91 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. Results showed an overall success rate of 72 percent.

C.A. Bassett M. Schink-Ascani, Long-term Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Results in Congenital Pseudarthrosis, Calcif Tissue Int, 49(3), September 1991, p. 216-220.


Results of this study indicated that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields had beneficial effects in children suffering from congenital pseudoarthrosis.

M.L. Sutcliffe A.A. Goldberg, The Treatment of Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia with Pusling Electromagnetic Fields: A Survey of 52 Cases, Clinical Orthop, (166), 1982, p. 45-57.


Results of this study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic fields (72 Hz) can be an effective therapy for patients suffering from lesions associated with congenital pseudoarthroses when treatment is combined with appropriate orthopedic management.

J.S. Kort C.A.L. Bassett, Role of Electricity in the Treatment of Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia, Reconstr Surg Traumatol, 19, 1985, p. 140-146.

Noting the well-established dangers associated with electroconvulsive therapy, the author, in this theoretical article, argues that transcranial magnetic stimulation should be looked at as an alternative psychiatric treatment. The author asserts that TMS has several advantages over ECT in that it is painless, noninvasive, and more effective on deep structures of the brain.

T. Zyss, Deep Magnetic Brain Stimulation – The End of Psychiatric Electroshock Therapy? Medical Hypotheses, 43(2), 1994, p. 69-74.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that low-energy-emission therapy significantly improved sleeping patterns among patients suffering from chronic psychophysiological insomnia. Therapy was administered 3 times per week, always in late afternoon and for 20 minutes, over a period of 4 weeks.

R. Hajdukovic, Effects of Low Energy Emission Therapy (LEET) on Sleep Structure, First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19 June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 92.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of low-energy emission therapy (27 MHz amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields) in patients suffering from insomnia. Treatment consisted of 3 exposures per week over a 4-week period. Results showed significant increases in total sleep time among patients in the treatment group relative to controls.

M. Erman, Low-Energy Emission Therapy (LEET) Treatment for somnia,” Bioelectromagnetics Society, 13th Annual Meeting, 23-27 June 1991, Salt Lake City, UT, p. 69.


This review article notes that studies have found low-energy emission therapy to be effective in the treatment of chronic insomnia, and suggests that it may also be of value for patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorders.

C. Guilleminault B. Pasche,Clinical Effects of Low Energy Emission Therapy, Bioelectromagnetics Society, 15th Annual Meeting, 13-17 June 1993, Los Angeles, CA, p. 84.

Results of this study found that exposure to constant magnetic fields improved healing in rats with experimentally induced spinal cord injury, and in human patients suffering from spinal cord trauma as well.

E.V. Tkach,Characteristics of the Effect of a Constant Electromagnetic Field on Reparative Processes in Spinal Cord Injuries, Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr, 89(5), 1989, p. 41-44.


This study examined the effects of functional magnetic stimulation used to treat spinal cord injury in seven male patients. Results showed the treatment to be an effective noninvasive approach.

M.K. Sheriff, Neuromodulation of Detrusor Hyper-reflexia Functional Magnetic Stimulation of the Sacral Roots, British Journal of Urology, 78(1), July 1996, p. 39-46.

Results of this study demonstrated that treatment with sinusoidal modulated currents coupled with Tran cerebral magnetic fields proved more effective than either therapy on its own in the treatment of stroke patients during the period of early rehabilitation.

F.E. Gorbunov, The Effect of Combined Transcerebral Magnetic and Electric Impulse Therapy on the Cerebral and Central Hemodynamic Status of Stroke Patients in the Early Rehabilitation Period, Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (3), May-June 1996, p. 21-24.


This study found that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields following focal cerebral ischemia provided significant protection against neuronal damage, in rabbits.

G. Grant, Protection Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia Following Exposure to a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(3), 1994, p. 205-216.


Results of this study pointed to the efficacy of magnetic field therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of conditions associated with different brain vascular diseases.

N.Y. Gilinskaia, Magnetic Fields in Treatment of Vascular Diseases of the Brain, Magnitologiia, 1, 1991, p. 13-17.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic field therapy exhibited significant beneficial effects in the treatment of patients suffering from persistent rotator cuff tendonitis.

A. Binder, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy of Persistent Rotator Cuff Tendinitis. A Double-blind Controlled Assessment, Lancet, 1(8379), March 31, 1984, p. 695-698.

Results of this study indicated that treatment with pulsating electromagnetic field either alone or in combination with laser therapy exhibited healing effects with respect to peripheral nerve lesions and general wound healing relative to controls.

B. Vukovic-Jankovic, Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Stimu-lated Pulsating Electromagnetic (PEMF) Field and Laser, Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of a magnetic treatment device taped over the carpal tunnel against wrist pain sustained at work among a group of turkey plant employees. Results showed that the device was effective in alleviating such pain and that it was free of side effects.

M.J. McLean, Treatment of Wrist Pain in the Work Place with a Static Magnetic Device – Interim Report of a Clinical Trial, Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, June 8-13, Bologna, Italy.


Results of this controlled study showed that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields produced significant beneficial cutaneous wound healing effects in rats.

O. Patino, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats, Journal of Burn Care Rehabil, 17(6 PT 1), 1996, p. 528-531.


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that treatment with non-thermal pulsed radio frequency energy accelerated would healing in spinal cord injury patients suffering from stage II and III pressure ulcers. RF treatment consisted of pulsed 27.12-MHz energy produced via a Diapulse device, with energy delivered via a treatment head placed in wound dressings, in 30-minute periods twice a day for 12 weeks or until sores healed.

C.A. Salzberg, The Effects of Non-Thermal Pulsed Electromagnetic Energy on Wound Healing of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study, Ostomy Wound Manage, 41(3), 1995, p. 42-51.


After a discussion of the mechanics involved in the use of pulsed electromagnetic energy in the treatment of disease, the author discusses findings from recent studies pointing to the therapy’s effectiveness with respect to the treatment of acute soft-tissue lesions.

G.C. Coats,Pulsed Electromagnetic (Short-Wave) Energy Therapy, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(4), 1989, p. 213-216.


Results of this placebo-controlled study indicated that low-intensity continuous microwave radiation administered over a period of 7 days was effective in treating post-operative purulent wounds associated with abdominal surgery.

N.N. Korpan T. Saradeth, Clinical Effects of Continous Microwave for Postoperative Septic Wound Treatment: A Double-Blind Controlled Trial, American Journal of Surgery, 170(3), 1995, p. 271-276.


Results of this study showed that combined magneto/laser therapy reduced inflammation and wound suppuration, and enhanced tissue healing significantly in patients suffering from gunshot wounds relative to conventional treatment only.

N. Bairamov, Magnetolaser Therapy in Complex Treatment of Gunshot Wounds,” All-Union Symposium: Laser and Magnetic Therapy in Experimental and Clinical Studies, 16-18 June 1993, Obnisk, Kaluga Region, Russia, p. 184-185.


Noting that pulsed electromagnetic fields have been used in bone healing for more than 20 years, this review article cites recent results from both animal and human studies pointing to the efficacy of PEMF in the treatment of soft-tissue injuries as well.

B.F. Sisken J. Walker, Therapeutic Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields for Soft-Tissue Healing, in M. Blank, (ed.), Electromagnetic Fields: Biological Interactions and Mechanisms, Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1995, p. 277-285.


This double-blind study examined the effects of postoperative nonthermal pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on edema formation and bruise healing in boys undergoing orchidopexy. Treatment involved exposure 3 times daily for the first 4 days following surgery. Significant effects with respect to rate of bruise resolution were reported in patients receiving the treatment relative to controls.

R.H.C. Bentall H.B. Eckstein, A Trial Involving the Use of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Therapy on Children Undergoing Orchidopexy, Z. Kinderchir, 17(4), 1975, p. 380-389.


This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in patients suffering from chronic productive inflammation or orbital tissue. PEMF treatment consisted of 7-10 minute daily exposures over a period of 10 days. Controls received conventional treatment only. Both groups showed good improvement, but patients treated with the PEMFs recovered significantly faster than did controls.

L.S. Teren’eva, Treatment of Chronic Productive Inflammation of Orbital Tissues with a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field, Oftalmol Zh, 1, 1996, p. 1-5.